The word ”talisman” comes from the Greek telesma, meaning ”completion, religious rite,” from the verb teleo,  meaning ”I complete, perform a rite. [2]       Centuries of magical faith and experience support the belief that these legendary luck – bringers can attract good luck or avert misfortune. [0]         Aside from  commonly-known good luck amulets, there are many other objects that can be used as intentional tools to attract good luck, happiness, or prosperity. [6] They are worn or carried to avert harm, ward off misfortune, protect against danger, to bring good, insure fortunate events and attract love, luck, and favorable conditions. [3]                 There are also simple exercises and visualization techniques that everyone can use to achieve empowerment : using power words and rituals; creative visualization and consciousness projection; dream recall and analysis; and using personal power objects. [9]         Drawing on the wisdom of the Eastern shamans, the teachings of the Native Americans, and the ancient traditions described in the writings of Carlos Castaneda, shamanism is  demystified and shown how it can be an accessible means of uncovering and focusing personal power. As used in the Western intellectual tradition, until recently magic has most frequently been attributed to non-Western peoples, cultural others, or perceived European pasts, although all major world religions have some concept of magic. [4]                

Talismans in ancient Egypt

The Egyptians believed that the dead person would embark on a subterranean journey, tracing the route of Re, the sun god. [10] As chapter 110 of the Book of the Dead reveals, corporeal needs and pleasures were not abandoned once one passed into the afterlife. [10] Objects accompanied the dead on their journey. Known in ancient Egypt as aThe Chapters of Going Forth by Day, a Lepsius dubbed it the Book of the Dead. [10]. ts 200 chapters are a thrilling insight into beliefs about the trials, joys, and fears on the journey into deathas mysterious realm. [10] The form of many amulets, such as the Ankh cross, the Scarab and the Swastika, goes back to a vast antiquity, as is the belief in the ”vibrational” powers of crystals. [0] Some authorities believe the shape of the ankh to symbolize and represent the union of male and female – the creative powers of life. [0]                     Ankh is typically associated with material things such as water, air, sun, as well as with the Gods, who are frequently pictured carrying an Ankh. [8]It was preserved with the utmost care and secrecy among the Buddhist lamas of Mongolia, as its possession was believed to confer great power and protection. Modern interpretations of Talismans; Jewellery         Jewelry often combines ancient and sacred knowledge into a unique line of jewelry designed to bring people both beauty and inspiration. [8] Given their natural beauty, rarity and value, crystals and precious stones in the ancient cultures were believed to possess intrinsic virtues which radiated its energies to its owner or wearer. [0]         This belief is implicit in the custom of members of the monarchy possessing and wearing crystals in their crown jewels and royal regalia, and in the wearing of rings by bishops and other church dignitaries. [0]  If the artist realizes the mysteries in symbols, powerful effects are often produced. [1]                    

Demonic influences and ”weaker vessels”    

     Seeing that the weak were more likely to suffer from the evil influence of witchcraft and demons than the strong, it was usually only the women and children who wore Talismans as means of protection. [7] Talismans were often used for divine protection, to prevail over oppressors or nonbelievers, to channel positive energies to the owner, and deflect evil. [2] Children, owing to their feeble powers of resistance, were held to be much exposed to the danger of magic fascination; they were, therefore, protected by means of knots, written parchments, etc ., tied round their necks. [7]      Amulets, on the other hand,, were employed to protect man, or his possessions, such as houses, cattle, etc ., from the evil influences of witches, demons, and other mischievous powers likely to be encountered, or to counteract misfortune, illness, and damage of various kinds already being endured. [7]       

Averting the ”evil eye”   

      The Hamsa serves as an ancient talismanic way of averting the evil eye and providing a ”protecting hand” or ”Hand of God ”. [8]  It derives from the natural gesture of raising the hand to ward off evil – especially the dreaded ’evil eye ’. [0]           Also, the Egyptian Eye of Horus, also called the all – seeing eye, is a protective amulet that keeps guard with an open eye to evil, blocking its menacing ways. [6]  Rather than evil looking at you eye – to – eye it directs its focus on the evil eye charm where it can do no harm. [6] Possessing or wearing the evil eye charm as a protective amulet is based on the belief that evil can only harm you if it peers at you directly into your eyes. [6]      

Animal figures in talismans    

    The Ox Talisman is the only one to show the animal looking directly forward, though the Pig is looking mostly forward as well. [11]Those looking to the left are the Snake, Dragon, Horse, and Pig. [11]         Although the Pig Talisman isn’t as strong in its offensive uses as the Dragon Talisman, it can also grant the user thermal imaging in order to counter the effects of the Snake Talisman. [11]For example, a hunter would focus on the animal spirit asking for the animals to honor him by sacrificing its own life so that his tribe could survive         The item was a handle with four, dragon – like heads – the eyes would glow red from the dragon pointing towards the nearest Talisman whenever used. [11]          The scarab – beetle god Khepera was believed to push the setting sun along the sky in the same manner as the beetle with his ball of dung. [8] They fly about at dusk when the sun is sinking and most important of all, the scarab lays its eggs in the dung of animals, which it then rolls into a bigger ball than itself. [0]    

Dolls as Talismans     

    Worry dolls, sometimes called trouble dolls, are miniature dolls made from scraps of colorful woven cloth, yarn, and wee sticks. [6]  You can purchase worry dolls in bulk for your art projects or craft your own worry dolls using a variety of different materials such as glue, dental floss, yarn, embroidery floss, toothpicks, beads, pipe cleaners, and fabric swatches. [6]         The dolls are not meant to be played with as toys, but worry dolls can be given to children to teach them how to express worries and handle anxieties. [6] You will often find them packaged with four to six worry dolls tucked inside a cloth drawstring bag or small box along with a slip of paper detailing the folklore story about how the dolls got their name. [6]            

Circles and crescents        

The Greeks called this figure of the encircled serpent the ’Ouroborous ’, and regarded it as a symbol of infinity and eternity. [0] To the people of ancient times, the snake was a mysterious creature because of the way in which it glided along without legs. [0]                 The lucky horseshoe is really the form of the crescent which derives its fortunate influence from the Moon goddess which has many names such as : Isis, Diana, Artemis, Tanith, Ishtar, Astarte, Hecate, Cerridwen, or any of the other names she has been known by over the ages. [0]

Sources:     [0]: https://spiritual.com.au/2011/07/talismans-and-amulets/    [1]: https://worldspirituality.org/talismans-html    [2]: https://www.thymindoman.com/the-talismanic-gold-plates-of-joseph-smith/    [3]: https://theluckycandle.com/product/secrets-of-magic-seals/    [4]: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/9781118924396.wbiea1915    [5]: https://www.bejeweledmag.com/travel-charms-the-talisman-of-superstitions/    [6]: https://www.learnreligions.com/healing-amulets-talismans-and-fetishes-1728673    [7]: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1445-amulet    [8]: https://www.ka-gold-jewelry.com/p-articles/talismans.php    [9]: https://www.paragonhouse.com/xcart/Shamanism-and-Personal-Mastery-Using-Symbols-Rituals-and-Talismans.html    [10]: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/magazine/2016/01-02/egypt-book-of-the-dead/    [11]: https://jackiechanadventures.fandom.com/wiki/Twelve_Talismans

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